The histogram is the most efficient and reliable way of evaluating exposure in photography. The LCD at the back of our cameras do NOT always tell the truth.
In the simplest way possible, white balance is the process of reproducing the colors of the image the way you saw it with your naked eyes when you took the image.
An aperture in plain simple English means a hole or a gap. In photography, it refers to a hole/opening at the back of the lens..
Shutter speed determines the time period during which the shutter opens up to let in light to the camera image sensor