In the simplest way possible, white balance is the process of reproducing the colors of the image the way you saw it with your naked eyes when you took the image.
A camera dioptre is an optical tool that adjusts your camera’s viewfinder to suit your eyes. This is especially important for photographers with glasses.
An aperture in plain simple English means a hole or a gap. In photography, it refers to a hole/opening at the back of the lens..
Shutter speed determines the time period during which the shutter opens up to let in light to the camera image sensor