In the simplest way possible, white balance is the process of reproducing the colors of the image the way you saw it with your naked eyes when you took the image.
A camera dioptre is an optical tool that adjusts your camera’s viewfinder to suit your eyes. This is especially important for photographers with glasses.
Macro photography is defined as the genre of photography where the size of the photograph of the subject is larger than the subject in real life.
An aperture in plain simple English means a hole or a gap. In photography, it refers to a hole/opening at the back of the lens..
Shutter speed determines the time period during which the shutter opens up to let in light to the camera image sensor